Tomato or Tomato?


Tomatoes are NOT native to the Mediterranean despite what some pasta-loving purists may believe.

The tomato is actually native to the South American Andes where it was first cultivated around 500 c. BC and later became a prominent food source for the Aztecs in Mexico which means salsa pre-dated marinara, folks!

The Italians didn’t first see what they would later call, “The Golden Apple” (Pomodoro!) until around the 16th century, when it was thought that the Spanish (Possibly Hernan Cortez) brought it over from the new world. The first mention of this exotic vegetable (or fruit. Have we ever settled on this?) in Italy was by a physician and botanist in 1544 named Pietro who mistook it for an eggplant, who, given his profession, should probably have quit his day job.

The reputation of the tomato didn’t fair any better after this, being assumed as poisonous due to its variety of bright colors. But, given that this was during the hay day of the Renaissance and poisoning was the preferred method of anyone trying to play a decent joke or a murder or ten, the caution was probably substantiated.

Eventually though, a recipe book showed up in Naples in the 17th century detailing how to cook with the apple/eggplant thing and the rest is history, where the tomato will eventually feature in pizzas, pastas, and bad stand-up comedy shows for centuries to come.


What is Fascism?


Benito Mussolini, Leader of the Nationalist Fascist Party who became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 until he decided Democracy was for squares and seized control of the nation as dictator.

People like to throw around words that hurt, words that no one wishes to be associated with because of the troubled history these definitions carry, regardless of their accuracy. Many of us are able to recall the stain from lived experience while others of us unknowingly feel discomfort upon hearing their whisper, ghosts of a time we were fortunate enough not to have witnessed. It’s not out of the ordinary to hear someone called a ‘Communist’ or a ‘Socialist’ for simply being disagreeable rather than because of any formal affiliation with a political faction, for example. These words used to mean something. Rather than an insult insinuating how “un-American” an individual may be, these words used to come with a benchmark of ideals and theories characterized by aggressive political leanings that have, in History, sparked revolutions. These words used to matter.

Democracy is beautiful in theory; in practice it is a fallacy. You in America will see that some day. –Benito Mussolini in 1928 [1]

The sands of time are no kinder to concepts and words than they are to ruins, and so it is possible to forget or wave away its meaning as a figment of the past. Fascism, like many other features of World War II, has NOT been buried or vanquished like the Third Reich–It’s a symbiotic strain of Nationalist sentiment that still, to this day, rears its ugly head in every day discourse and goes on unnamed and, ultimately, undetected for what it truly is.

Fascism as a political theory falls on the spectrum of far-right radical leanings characterized by severe Nationalist sentiments and in opposition to Liberalism and Marxist beliefs. Fascism operates on the idea that Democracy is failing and that the true way to unite the state is under one party with a powerful, preferable, Dictator to solidify the stability necessary to combat military and economic crisis. To do this, Fascism encourages violence, war, and Imperialism, as a means to help jump start and heal the nation unilaterally and advocates an economic market with isolationist, aggressive restrictions on foreign trade to further the goal of self-sufficiency.

a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion –
Robert Paxton, The Anatomy of Fascism [2]

On social issues, Fascism attacked and categorized homosexuality as a deviant behavior, condemned forms of birth control utilized by women, [3] and relegated the roles of women as ‘reproducers’ and regarded their role in the work force as responsible for unemployment and incompatible with child bearing. [4]

Though not the creator of Fascism but certainly founder of the Italian movement, Benito Mussolini remains the world’s leading example of Fascism in action. Once a socialist, Mussolini grew despondent towards his party’s preference to remain uninvolved during World War I which he was eager to serve in and was later discharged after a wound sustained by an accidental mortar bomb explosion on the Italian Front. Upon his return, he denounced his former party and founded the National Fascist Party with an emphasis on renewed focus of Italian Nationalism. Mussolini came into power in the last week of October 1922 when, with his band of paramilitary supporters known as the ‘Blackshirts’, marched on Rome demanding the resignation of the current prime minister Luigi Facta and the right to rule–which was handed over by the king Victor Emmanuel III. Mussolini then subsequently became the youngest Prime Minister in Italy and used his authority to further his Fascist agenda by establishing, with the help of his secret police and sets of defining laws, a one-party dictatorship with himself at the helm.

It was a long complicated road. When Mussolini took office, the Parliament was filled with many opposing political factions–leaders intent on curbing the Fascist enthusiasm Mussolini now brought with him (along with some muscled brutes for good measure). In an effort to garner support on the outset, Mussolini targeted new reforms toward the Working Class to reduce the work day which guaranteed 8 hours, ignored profiteering of the Industrial sector during WWI, catered to the wealthy by reducing death duties, and rubbed elbows with the Roman Catholic Church by mandating religious education as obligatory in all elementary schools. All in all, everyone was pleased.

Except, of course, his political enemies. To deal with them, Mussolini initiated a Grand Fascist Council which would decide upon policy reforms while shutting out any dissenters or opposing party factions. This group immediately brought forth a law known as Acerbo Law which sought to change the way members of parliament were elected into seats. Now if a political party, such as the National Fascist Party, received at least 25% of the vote in elections, they were now guaranteed at least 66% of the seats in Parliament ensuring them a solid majority.  Those brutes I mentioned before served as a useful tool in getting the law passed despite its obvious connotations for anyone not a member of the Fascist party. Once passed, the Fascist hold over Parliament was secured with more than 2/3rds of the available Parliamentary seats. Obviously, this did not go unnoticed by the concerned populace in Italy and a prominent Italian politician by the name of Giacomo Matteotti stood before the Parliament and publicly accused the Fascists of rigging the election in their favor and accused Mussolini of inviting those brutes, outside busy fiercely cracking their knuckles, to the party.

So it was no surprise when, 11 days after this declaration, Giacomo Matteotti turned up murdered and people maybe thought that Mussolini had something to do with it. Since no evidence was found in trial condemning Mussolini in the involvement of the murder, historians still debate the validity of this claim today. Regardless, the Italian public believed and upon numerous journalist outcries and calls for resignation, a number of the non-Fascist Parliament members staged a walkout in protest (Which…well, made things even more Fascist-y than before in Parliament) and begged the King, Victor Emmanuel III, to remove Mussolini from office. The King, for reasons that remain petty and politically mind boggling, didn’t much care for the protestors stance on the monarchy to begin with since they favored a republic and ‘Pah!’d them away allowing Mussolini to solidify his hold.

Swiftly, Mussolini shut down those trash talking newspapers and sent out his army of brutes to silence further dissenters. By 1926, all other political parties had been banned from Italy. A year later, a secret police was formed with the reintroduction of the death penalty to facilitate this ban. Mussolini was now free to exert full control and had no one standing in his way (unless Victor Emmanuel III ever decided to get off his duvet and do something about it). The precursory period before WWII saw the same dance of propaganda, cultural revere, and idolization of Mussolini (Apparently he could play a mean violin?)  as was usual for other growing dictatorships in Europe. This caught the esteem of Adolf Hitler. The two eventually formed an alliance with the instigation of WWII, despite Mussolini’s political allies discouraging him to do so. Mussolini was confident that Germany would soon be victorious, however, and that the war would be short lived.,_M%C3%BCnchener_Abkommen,_Ankunft_Mussolini.jpg

It wasn’t. Most of us know exactly how WWII plays out and I’m not going to recite it all here, though needless to say, Italy didn’t do so hot. By 1943, Italy had suffered major setbacks on all fronts, exposed itself to invasion by Allied forces, and resource output ground to a halt with factories lost in frequent bombings and food shortages starved out the population. The stress took a toll on Mussolini himself, being diagnosed with gastritis and duodenitis which both served together to bring on one helluva an IBS rager which forced him to stay home seated on the porcelain throne rather than in government.

Victor Emmanuel III was finally ready to do something. With the help of Count Dino Grandi (Member of the Fascist Grand Council and enemy of Mussolini after opposing Italy’s entry into WWII), they orchestrated the removal of Mussolini by calling for a vote of no confidence among the council which succeeded. Mussolini merely shrugged and showed up the next day viewing them mostly as advisors of which his ousting he did not care to follow. The King then invited Mussolini to his palace where he was ambushed with an arrest and was told that he was being replaced with a new Prime Minister. Mussolini was then imprisoned and moved around in order to hide his location from his best friend forever, Hitler, who was hell bent on re-inserting him to power. He was eventually ‘rescued’ by his pal and encouraged to spearhead a new regime intent on stealing back Italy. Now operating under the tutilage of German forces, Mussolini retired himself to Lake Garda where he ordered a few executions of his betrayers while sipping a bellini while Hitler ran the show on the front.

In April of 1945 (a few days before the suicide of Hitler), Mussolini was stopped along with his mistress on their way to escaping to Spain by communist partisans. The pair were captured and brought to Mezzegra where they survived their last night before being shot to death along with their entire convoy. It didn’t end there. After loading their bodies into a van and heading down to Milan, the bodies were dumped unceremoniously at the Piazzale Loreto. Civilians came out in droves to beat and abuse the corpses which were eventually strung up by the ankles and hung from a gas station so that they made for easier targets in stoning.

With the death of Mussolini and the conclusion of WWII, the National Fascist Party was outlawed in Italy. Many successor neo-Fascist parties arose instead, and some do exist in modern times around the world today though not to the same extent or level of power as Mussolini’s rise in Italy. However easy it is to kill a man or his party, remember that it is not as easy to kill an idea. Though the usage of the term Fascism is deadened by its limits in political relevance today, many policies and ideals characterized by its fervor are still very much alive and well. Fascism still means something and we would all do well never to forget it.


1. Quote from Mussolini as told to Edwin L James of the New York Times. (1928)

2. Paxton, Robert. The Anatomy of Fascism. Vintage Books. ISBN 1-4000-4094-9.

3. Maria Sop Quine. Population Politics in Twentieth Century Europe: Fascist Dictatorships and Liberal Democracies. Routledge, 1995

4. Durham, Martin, Women and Fascism (Routledge, 1998) p. 15.

Day 3 in France

Grand Trianon in Versailles and my future home to be

I woke up this morning on a mission–I was finally going to see the largest palace in Europe. Since we had already previewed the Chateau while it was closed the day previously, we knew exactly when and where to drive, park, and stop for a quick cafe’. 

So I was finally able to taste my first French coffee–cafe creme–and I was not disappointed. It was lighter than I had imagined, I was always told espresso in Europe was thicker, but it was smooth and perfect in every way (Just like Mary Poppins). One thing I’ve noticed, in France, is that coffee seems to be served with a mint on the side which is BRILLIANT. I have an irrational fear that my breath would resemble coffee so much that people would write about it in a suggestion box like they did for Michael Scott in The Office. I will find a way to carry on this tradition back home.

After that I ordered a plain omelette with a side salad. Sounds boring, but it was actually pretty fulfilling while also being light and fluffy. Really makes you reconsider the American standard bacon, sausage, hash browns, and grease plate. There was also a gentleman sitting across from us who was busy typing away on his Mac while his yellow lab hung out under the table at his feet (Dogs seem to be allowed almost anywhere). His pup was super cute and started to get a bit restless. I’m sure the dog didn’t understand English, but he seemed to respond to “Hey Boo Boo” and “Puppy Cutie” as he came to our table and sat politely staring. His owner got a little sheepish about it and packed up to leave with a friendly wave to us as Mister Doo Doo Tail reluctantly followed.

We were now ready to head to Chateau Versailles. The first thing you’re greeted with is a large statue of Louis XIV, also known as The Sun King, credited with being the main architect for much of Versailles. I didn’t snap a shot of this because I prefer to think of Louis as the dear Alan Rickman in the film A Little Chaos. Be right back, I’m still crying about that closing shot. Okay. The ground floor consists of the majority of the palace tour–unless we had access to areas we weren’t aware of further up or in, we don’t know because it was PACKED there. I actually don’t have much in the way of pictures to share because of how many people there were everywhere. I decided to visualize and take in what I could without trying to wrestle with a decent shot. Much of the main floor as been turned into a gallery to tour with spots intended for audio listeners to watch brief history bits of the palace. A lot of the information shared in the audio videos was, in my opinion, common knowledge. I was a bit diasspointed there wasn’t any scandilizing tidbits I hadn’t come across yet. I bought a book from the gift store that will hopefully be more interesting and I’ll update my blog when I return home accordingly since I don’t have much to share aside from the tourist experience.

Hercule’s Room

My favorite part of Versailles was the sprawling gardens and outdoor portion of the estate. We had purchased a passport so that we could go explore Marie Antoninette’s estate which resided past the main gardens and Trianon and nestled somewhere near her hamlet and farm area. To get there, you have to either pay to walk through the gardens or go back around the street and through the city part of Versailles until you find the gate leading straight through. So we walked. AND WALKED.

We eventually made it to the Trianon Palace which, post French Revolution became renovated living apartments for Emperor Napoleon and his Empress Marie-Louise and now houses a modern exhibit for De Gaulle. Now, we TRIED to find Marie Antoniette’s estate–asked for directions 3 separate times, constalted every map, and walked for nearly 2 hours in the gardens alone but without signs pointing us the right way, we just couldn’t find it. We ended up giving up on the poor Austrian princess. My dear Marie, how I wanted to see where you partied. Au Revoir and hopefully next time my petite cake.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites 2014: Piedmont, Italy.

It’s time folks!

UNESCO is putting together a new vote on the latest World Heritage sites, the best preservation technique the modern world has to offer. The chosen sites are being announced as I type this, but I’m sure all of you are wondering (including myself, honestly) what some of the significance behind these historical sites may be. And as one of my childish dreams (while I toil away with an AA degree in the service industry) is to one day work with UNESCO on these sites, I’ll be doing my own personal PR digging and pretending I’m some how a part of all of this grand occasion by doing a little research into the history of our new World Heritage Sites.

Vineyards of Piedmont, Italy.

Vineyards of Piedmont, Italy.

Most people have probably not heard of Piedmont, frankly, I being one of them. I have, however, heard of all of the peoples at one time being in control of this expansive Italian region. That being in a particular order: Celtic tribes, Romans, Burgundians, Goths, Byzantines, Lombards, Franks, Holy Roman Empire…sounds pretty familiar across Europe, no? And after all this confusion to claims, Piedmont eventually emerged as the Kingdom of Sardinia dating from the good ol’ Italian Renaissance to around the more modern 19th century. In fact, the region is no stranger to the heritage fame with the Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi (save the jokes, please) being added to the listed, once belonging to the House of Savoy which acquired the kingdom in 1720AD.

Someone probably went "Baroque" after building this. *crickets*

Someone probably went “Baroque” after building this. *crickets*

But what Piedmont had been REALLY famous for was the booze. Or, in this case, a spectacular ability to make fantastic wine for loooong times. It was well known for its vines even in Ancient Roman times back when civilians guzzled wine like water with Pliny the Elder noting that the Piedmont region was the most favorable for growing. And that was back in 77BC, with about 2000 years in between, and Piedmont is still kickin’ the grapes with wrath. Again, when you consider how many various civilizations conquered (or re-conquered) the region, it’s a miracle the environment remained as relatively intact as it is today, especially since those dirty ancestor’s of ours loved to “salt the earth” whenever they didn’t feel like sharing.

Of related note to all this wino business was how strangely influential the grape was to the very essence of Italian culture, notably, the Italian Unification which is the whole gosh darn reason we have an Italy today. Ever heard of Giuseppe Garibaldi? The name should ring a bell, but if not, he was that dude who kicked the shit all over the world as well as personally super gluing the various Italian states together with his fantastic beard. Well, he was also a big-time winemaker who introduced the happy science French mixture to help protect the area’s vineyards. Because if there is one thing France was actually any good at defending…it was the wine. And, reminiscent of the elementary school tales of the American Revolutionary War where we all learned that Bostonians got super bloody peeved when their Earl Grey got taxed, the Austrians decided to double the tariffs of the Piemontese wine with predictable results which sort of kick-started the whole independence thing in the first place.

So, it makes sense that UNESCO would name the Vineyards of Piedmont, Italy as a World Heritage Site, an area that includes 5 wine-growing areas and the Castle of Cavour for good measure. Now we all have an excuse to go all Bacchus on this news, right?

Aww, isn't it cute?

Aww, isn’t it cute?

The Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms

(History Notes!)

I'd wear it.

I’d wear it.

(England; c. 450-1056AD)

Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; modern identity of England comes from belief of these descendants.

A) Adventus Saxonum- Arrival of the Saxons

B) The “Heptarchy” (8 kingdoms) and The Bretwaldas

  • Kent, Mercia, and Northumbria
  • Had a period there where king had authority over England
  • Buttt for the most part….fighting.

C) Offa = badass.

Cerdic begets Cynegils who begets like 6 other children but the 5th in line is all “Fsck you, I should be king!” /monarchy

D) Capitals and Wics

  • Kings live in cities, a capital.
  • Have them Bishops under control, ya’ll.
  • WICS: Trading Emporia. Good trading posts, international.

-Didn’t have bishop, not steady urban population.

-Self governing.

E) 597AD, Gregory I’s mission to cure the heathens. Anglos need to be converted to Christianity!

  • Sends monk Augustine to convert. (Rome)
  • Talks to King of Kent to establish church.

-Kent converts, orders people to convert to his church.

  • ???? PROFIT!

-Gregory I: “Congrats! You’re bishop of the English church now!”

-Augustine: “What the hell do I do now?”

  • !! Bishop of England answers to bishop of Rome!

-POPE! (The origin of idea)

F) Ireland: Converted under St. Patrick.

  • Fawk the Pope, what is that noise.
  • Interest in converting.

Kings and Their Mistresses

As Caroline had feared, Henrietta was replaced by younger, prettier, more manipulating mistresses. Dying from an umbilical rupture in 1737, wrapped in towels as her intestines spilled out, the queen, sensible to the end, suggested that George remarry. But the king, heartbroken, hovering near her bed in her last agonizing moments, swore he would have only mistresses and never remarry.

“Oh, my God!” the dying queen said in French, with characteristic practicality, “that won’t make any difference!”

-Excerpt from Sex with Kings by Eleanor Herman. Famous last words of Queen Caroline to her gallivanting husband King George II of England.