Early Byzantium

(History Notes!)

Byzantium didn't start the fire.

Byzantium didn’t start the fire.

Early Byzantium

A) Official policies:

  • Persians- WE ARE AT WAR!
  • Barbarians- Go west and GTFO. Make it seem like they can rule by allowing them to. They are there because we say so. Whatever helps us sleep at night.

B) Chalcedonian. Enforce Orthodoxy. (Remember the Council of Chalcedon? Statement that Jesus has two natures)

C) Heraclius (608-641) First Byzantine Emperor. “Basileos ton Rhomaioi”

  • Wins Persian Wars!
  • Greek for ruler of Romans.
  • Arrives as usupur. Brief civil war. Hated Phocas because he sucks at wars.

-Phocas couldn’t stop Avars who came from central Asia and settled the Balkans.

  • Persians attack when Heraclius is ruler, they take Syria and Anatolia (Turkey)

-Lost Uruslum.

-Took the True Cross (Jesus’ cruxification cross. Errybody mad)

  • Strengthen forces at home and borders. THEN ATTACK THOSE JERK PERSIANS!

-Now all of Persia belongs to Rome. Oh snap.

Arab Invasion (633-659) AKA “A Wild Arabia Appears”

  • Arabs take Syria for funsies.

-Roman resources depleted by Persian War. Never really get back poor old Syria.

  • Arabs now have Syria and Egypt (Those Monophysite heretics!)
  • Yarmuk River (636)

-Byzantines completely f’d into a corner.

-After battle, cannot stop Arab advancement.

Constans II (641-668)

A) Reorganize Roman military.

  • Themas (A province)

B) *The Themata* Byzantium, 7th c. Constans II

  • Military unit stationed in a themas or province.

Why this is important: Each unit responsible for themas and owned property. Turns military into land holders. Instead of paying them, they got land.

  • Coinage disappears. Wide spread commerce declines.
  • Massive Urban Decline in Byzantium.
  • Makes soldiers very reliable. Fighting for their land, not yours. Defending Empire makes it strong enough to survive another thousand years.

Urban Decline

  • Cities belong to the Arabs. Whoops.
  • Themata
  • Exception: CONSTANTINOPLE!
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Recreating Rome? Justinian’s Wars 6th c. AD

Eh, who cares. We still have Constantinople for another thousand years.

Eh, who cares. We still have Constantinople for another thousand years.

 

Emperor of Constantinople

  • Re-assert authority over lost territory. BELISARIUS = Greatest. General. Ever.

 

The Vandal Wars (533)

  • Believe Jesus has less authority than God. Arian! (Heretic)
  • Vandal conquest of Africa (429-442)

-Quick conquest of Vandal, HUGE influx of ka-ching!

-If we can retake Africa…then what else?

The Gothic Wars (535-553)

  • Theodoric as King in Italy (489-493)
  • War drags on for 20+ years.
  • Romans sack, pillage, loot.
  • Barbarians sack, pillage, loot.

-LOL this sends Italy to the stone age! Dark Ages for the win!

The Persian Wars (537-532; 540-545, and 549-561 or “Why won’t these guys stay dead?”)

  • Sassanian Persia (c. 224-641)

-Cataphract. Fucker horse units for Persia! Also star in Civilization games.

  • May have payed off the Persians to get them to go away….a few times.
  • Client Kingdoms

-Iberia, as buffer state. If they get invaded immobilize! Lazica too.

-Persian wars continue until 641 AD happens and Persia goes bye.

Justinian: Model Roman Emperor

  1. Fought Wars
  2. Corpus Iuris Civilis (Made Laws)
  3. Get involved with Religion. And all of its disputes.
  4. Last to govern in Latin. After him it is all Greek.

 

 

 

 

 

Don’t ‘Cross’ Michael II.

On Christmas Eve of 820, the Emperor Leo V condemned the pretender Michael II to death by the rather bizarre method of having him tied to an ape and thrown into the furnaces that heated the imperial baths. Before the execution could take place, Michael’s supporters dressed up as monks and crept into the imperial palace to attack the emperor. Leo reportedly defended himself for more than an hour armed with nothing but a heavy metal cross that he swung around wildly before succumbing to the blades of his assailants. In what was surely the most undignified coronation in Byzantine history, Michael II was hastily brought up from the dungeons and crowned with the chains of his captivity still around his legs.

Found in Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization written by Lars Brownworth.