I’d wear it.
(England; c. 450-1056AD)
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; modern identity of England comes from belief of these descendants.
A) Adventus Saxonum- Arrival of the Saxons
B) The “Heptarchy” (8 kingdoms) and The Bretwaldas
- Kent, Mercia, and Northumbria
- Had a period there where king had authority over England
- Buttt for the most part….fighting.
C) Offa = badass.
Cerdic begets Cynegils who begets like 6 other children but the 5th in line is all “Fsck you, I should be king!” /monarchy
D) Capitals and Wics
- Kings live in cities, a capital.
- Have them Bishops under control, ya’ll.
- WICS: Trading Emporia. Good trading posts, international.
-Didn’t have bishop, not steady urban population.
E) 597AD, Gregory I’s mission to cure the heathens. Anglos need to be converted to Christianity!
- Sends monk Augustine to convert. (Rome)
- Talks to King of Kent to establish church.
-Kent converts, orders people to convert to his church.
-Gregory I: “Congrats! You’re bishop of the English church now!”
-Augustine: “What the hell do I do now?”
- !! Bishop of England answers to bishop of Rome!
-POPE! (The origin of idea)
F) Ireland: Converted under St. Patrick.
- Fawk the Pope, what is that noise.
- Interest in converting.
Visigothic Spain (418-711 AD)
A) Foederati (Barbarians who are given territory to rule and defend)
- Given Territory
- Given tax revenue
- Responsible for defense
- AKA ‘JUST TAKE IT’
B) Came from Scythia, Romans confused with Scadea/Thule too.
C) First Barbarian Kingdom
- Request to settle around Adrianople. Given permission, settled in refugee camps though.
- Major revolt. Eep. Romans lost, Emperor killed.
Alaric the Visigoth
- Negotiated a better deal for his people. Give him Roman title or else.
- 410- Rome is sacked because Honorius would not give him a title. Pillaged and stole shit.
-Kay fine. Take some territory. GAWD. (Spain/France)
A) Visigoths converted to Arian Christians. (So Heretics. So keep making themselves even more undesirable)
- Nicene/Chalcedonian councils created a hate/borderline tolerant relationship with Arian heretics.
Roman Law vs. Barbarian Law
Court/Layers vs. King/oath helpers (iz)
Jury vs. Legally defined fine (wergeld)
Judge imposes fire vs. “Evidence loses significance” and “Let god decide!” (Eventual ‘Ordeal’)
B) Authority vs. Nature (West vs. East)
- Pricillianist (Heresay); Form of Christianity, Dualistic.
-Strong impact on West. Influences Catholicism.
- Good- God (Spirit) versus Evil- Satan (Flesh)
-Fasting, making body uncomfortable, embracing chastity. Other super fun things.
- For West = Arians and Pricillian problem (Caaaaaaatholics)
*Third Council of Toledo (589)* Visigothic Spain
- Meeting with Visigothic Bishops in kingdom summoned by king to declare all people living in Visigoth Kingdom as Chalcedonian.
WHY: Creed test bitches! In church service. “And the Son” procession of the holy spirit becomes a thing.
- Different practice exclusive to the West.
- Represents strong top-down approach of Christianity and it’s spread in the West. Precursor to a forming hierarchy.
Emperor NOT Keanu Reeves
New Rome: Constantinople 324AD
- Founded as Roman Capital in the East by Constantine.
- Viable defendable capital.
- Walls 30 feet above and under ground.
- Best part of the Empire fo’sho!
- Everything of old Rome, Constantinople emulates too!
- (Grain Dole- Free food for Urban poor)
Barbarian Vs. Roman (Because we all saw this coming)
- Generals- Barbarian. Barbarians have the army (Because that’s what happens when they are your soldiers), use puppets.
- Stilicho (c. 359-408) vs. Aetius (c. 396-454)
- Stilicho tells Honorius what to do.
- So we don’t need Roman Emperor…
- Stilicho’s father is barbarian, mother is Roman.
- False Idea- Barbs taking over. Wanted citizenship.
- 455- Vandals sacked Rome. “Vandalism”.
- Bishop= Elite ministrator. Bishop would negotiate with Huns and Vandals.
- Settle an issue, another issue comes up!
- Ecumenical Council, all Bishops of world get together and argue until they can agree. Establishes correct belief.
- But can be overturned by later Councils so a lot of good that did…
- If Jesus is equal to god, is he human? Christiological; about Christ’s Nature.
- Nestorius, doesn’t like calling Mary “Mother of God”.
- One Nature believers; Monophysites
- Two Nature believers; Duophysites
- God dammit…COUNCIL CALLED!
*Council of Chalcedon*
An Ecumenical council summoned to determine Christ’s nature. One or two? 5th century, Late Roman Empire. 451AD.
WHY it is important:
- We believe Jesus has two natures.
- Monophysites DO NOT ACCEPT THIS CRAZY TALK. (Egypt and Syria; Eastern)
- EAST VS WEST. Soon to be Catholics vs Orthodox!
- Patriarchies. City where Bishop is given higher authority than others.
- Rome (WEST)
- Constantinople (EAST)
- Jerusalem (EAST)
- Antioch (EAST)
- Alexandria (EAST)
- …See what is happening here?
The Henoticon (482)
- Crap! Can’t piss off Egypt, they feed us. = Statement of Faith to make Monophysites happy without overturning council decision.
- Acacius (Constantinople Bishop) gives this statement to Patriarchs. Rome Bishop gives resounding GTFO in the form of EXCOMMUNICATION.
- Acacian Schism. 483.
- LOL shunned. West and East.
“Don’t worry, friends! The lion has come to join us in prayer!”
Elite Men: Triumph of Otium (Leisure, remember?)
- Senate has no status, cities suck. Elite Men run to the countryside and neglect responsibilities.
- Someone else must pick up the burden….*Cough* Middle Class *Cough* Sound familiar?
Elite Women: Triumph of Christianity
- Earlier, had role of Wife and Mother.
- Christianity now gives the role of “Virgin”.
-Higher calling than Wife or Mother.
-Celibacy elevated to a new ideal.
- They could act like men! Manly virgins!
- Patronize shrines of martyrs. (Cult of the Leader. Christians wouldn’t participate so Diocletion starts offing them during The Great Persecution)
- Martyrs get survivor remorse. They essentially become heroes of Christianity, like super Christians.
- Build shrines around the tomb!
Curicale Class and the Urban Plight
A) Curiale Class, lowest class of the Elite. Barely made the cut-off! (Middle Class)
- Stuck with the bill. Cannot afford it, obviously. Cannot join the army either. Lulz ensue.
- Also can’t become priests. CAN’T LEAVE THE CITY.
B) Bishop (Leader of church community)
- Makes sure to take care of his people.
- Good administrators, not good Christians…
- Move into position of maintaining cities.
AD 312- Christianity Becomes Legal.
A) Multiple Christian groups competing with each other over correct belief.
B) Constantine: “All Christians believe same thing!! NOW!” because that’s realistic given these problems:
- Issue of Forgiveness: If you survive persecution, are you still Christian?
-NO! Sin, against teachings. DENOUNCE DENOUNCE!
-OF COURSE, God forgivessss.
- Relationship of the Trinity: (God the father, God the Son, Holy Spirit) What is the status?
-They were equal, The Word was ‘Jesus’.
C) So. Correct belief?
- ALWAYS determined through argument and compromise.
- If not….then HERETIC!
D) *Theodosian Decrees* (391-392)
- All people living in Roman Empire are now Christian! (Paganism outlawed)
- WHY Is this important: For most of history, Rome was an incorporator. Major reversal of this practice! Didn’t want to offend, kept everyone happy, now though…safety comes from making sure everyone believes in one single idea to create uniformity! (Encourage stability and stop the fireeesssss)