A) Official policies:
- Persians- WE ARE AT WAR!
- Barbarians- Go west and GTFO. Make it seem like they can rule by allowing them to. They are there because we say so. Whatever helps us sleep at night.
B) Chalcedonian. Enforce Orthodoxy. (Remember the Council of Chalcedon? Statement that Jesus has two natures)
C) Heraclius (608-641) First Byzantine Emperor. “Basileos ton Rhomaioi”
- Wins Persian Wars!
- Greek for ruler of Romans.
- Arrives as usupur. Brief civil war. Hated Phocas because he sucks at wars.
-Phocas couldn’t stop Avars who came from central Asia and settled the Balkans.
- Persians attack when Heraclius is ruler, they take Syria and Anatolia (Turkey)
-Took the True Cross (Jesus’ cruxification cross. Errybody mad)
- Strengthen forces at home and borders. THEN ATTACK THOSE JERK PERSIANS!
-Now all of Persia belongs to Rome. Oh snap.
Arab Invasion (633-659) AKA “A Wild Arabia Appears”
- Arabs take Syria for funsies.
-Roman resources depleted by Persian War. Never really get back poor old Syria.
- Arabs now have Syria and Egypt (Those Monophysite heretics!)
- Yarmuk River (636)
-Byzantines completely f’d into a corner.
-After battle, cannot stop Arab advancement.
Constans II (641-668)
A) Reorganize Roman military.
- Themas (A province)
B) *The Themata* Byzantium, 7th c. Constans II
- Military unit stationed in a themas or province.
Why this is important: Each unit responsible for themas and owned property. Turns military into land holders. Instead of paying them, they got land.
- Coinage disappears. Wide spread commerce declines.
- Massive Urban Decline in Byzantium.
- Makes soldiers very reliable. Fighting for their land, not yours. Defending Empire makes it strong enough to survive another thousand years.
- Cities belong to the Arabs. Whoops.
- Exception: CONSTANTINOPLE!