History Notes! Society and Culture of Rome (3rd-4th Century)

"Don't worry, friends! The lion has come to join us in prayer!"

“Don’t worry, friends! The lion has come to join us in prayer!”

 

Elite Men: Triumph of Otium (Leisure, remember?)

  • Senate has no status, cities suck. Elite Men run to the countryside and neglect responsibilities.
  • Someone else must pick up the burden….*Cough* Middle Class *Cough* Sound familiar?

 

Elite Women: Triumph of Christianity

  • Earlier, had role of Wife and Mother.
  • Christianity now gives the role of “Virgin”.

-Higher calling than Wife or Mother.

-Celibacy elevated to a new ideal.

  • They could act like men! Manly virgins!
  • Patronize shrines of martyrs. (Cult of the Leader. Christians wouldn’t participate so Diocletion starts offing them during The Great Persecution)
  • Martyrs get survivor remorse. They essentially become heroes of Christianity, like super Christians.
  • Build shrines around the tomb!

Curicale Class and the Urban Plight

A) Curiale Class, lowest class of the Elite. Barely made the cut-off! (Middle Class)

  • Stuck with the bill. Cannot afford it, obviously. Cannot join the army either. Lulz ensue.
  • Also can’t become priests. CAN’T LEAVE THE CITY.

B) Bishop (Leader of church community)

  • Makes sure to take care of his people.
  • Good administrators, not good Christians…
  • Move into position of maintaining cities.

AD 312- Christianity Becomes Legal.

A) Multiple Christian groups competing with each other over correct belief.

B) Constantine: “All Christians believe same thing!! NOW!” because that’s realistic given these problems:

  • Issue of Forgiveness: If you survive persecution, are you still Christian?

-NO! Sin, against teachings. DENOUNCE DENOUNCE!

-OF COURSE, God forgivessss.

  • Relationship of the Trinity: (God the father, God the Son, Holy Spirit) What is the status?

-Father, OBVIOUSLY!

-They were equal, The Word was ‘Jesus’.

C) So. Correct belief?

  • ALWAYS determined through argument and compromise.
  • If not….then HERETIC!

D) *Theodosian Decrees* (391-392)

  • All people living in Roman Empire are now Christian! (Paganism outlawed)
  • WHY Is this important: For most of history, Rome was an incorporator. Major reversal of this practice! Didn’t want to offend, kept everyone happy, now though…safety comes from making sure everyone believes in one single idea to create uniformity! (Encourage stability and stop the fireeesssss)

 

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