Spain and Italy (5th-8th c. AD)

(History Notes!)

Visigothic Spain (418-711 AD)

A) Foederati (Barbarians who are given territory to rule and defend)

  • Given Territory
  • Given tax revenue
  • Responsible for defense
  • AKA ‘JUST TAKE IT’

B) Came from Scythia, Romans confused with Scadea/Thule too.

C) First Barbarian Kingdom

  • Request to settle around Adrianople. Given permission, settled in refugee camps though.
  • Major revolt. Eep. Romans lost, Emperor killed.

Alaric the Visigoth

  • Negotiated a better deal for his people. Give him Roman title or else.
  • 410- Rome is sacked because Honorius would not give him a title. Pillaged and stole shit.

-Kay fine. Take some territory. GAWD. (Spain/France)

Christianities

A) Visigoths converted to Arian Christians. (So Heretics. So keep making themselves even more undesirable)

  • Nicene/Chalcedonian councils created a hate/borderline tolerant relationship with Arian heretics.

Roman Law              vs.     Barbarian Law

Court/Layers              vs.     King/oath helpers (iz)

Jury                               vs.     Legally defined fine (wergeld)

Judge imposes fire      vs.      “Evidence loses significance” and “Let god decide!” (Eventual ‘Ordeal’)

B) Authority vs. Nature (West vs. East)

  • Pricillianist (Heresay); Form of Christianity, Dualistic.

-Strong impact on West. Influences Catholicism.

  • Good- God (Spirit) versus Evil- Satan (Flesh)

-Fasting, making body uncomfortable, embracing chastity. Other super fun things.

  • For West = Arians and Pricillian problem (Caaaaaaatholics)

From…

*Third Council of Toledo (589)* Visigothic Spain

  • Meeting with Visigothic Bishops in kingdom summoned by king to declare all people living in Visigoth Kingdom as Chalcedonian.

WHY: Creed test bitches! In church service. “And the Son” procession of the holy spirit becomes a thing.

  • Different practice exclusive to the West.
  • Represents strong top-down approach of Christianity and it’s spread in the West. Precursor to a forming hierarchy.

 

 

 

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Early Byzantium

(History Notes!)

Byzantium didn't start the fire.

Byzantium didn’t start the fire.

Early Byzantium

A) Official policies:

  • Persians- WE ARE AT WAR!
  • Barbarians- Go west and GTFO. Make it seem like they can rule by allowing them to. They are there because we say so. Whatever helps us sleep at night.

B) Chalcedonian. Enforce Orthodoxy. (Remember the Council of Chalcedon? Statement that Jesus has two natures)

C) Heraclius (608-641) First Byzantine Emperor. “Basileos ton Rhomaioi”

  • Wins Persian Wars!
  • Greek for ruler of Romans.
  • Arrives as usupur. Brief civil war. Hated Phocas because he sucks at wars.

-Phocas couldn’t stop Avars who came from central Asia and settled the Balkans.

  • Persians attack when Heraclius is ruler, they take Syria and Anatolia (Turkey)

-Lost Uruslum.

-Took the True Cross (Jesus’ cruxification cross. Errybody mad)

  • Strengthen forces at home and borders. THEN ATTACK THOSE JERK PERSIANS!

-Now all of Persia belongs to Rome. Oh snap.

Arab Invasion (633-659) AKA “A Wild Arabia Appears”

  • Arabs take Syria for funsies.

-Roman resources depleted by Persian War. Never really get back poor old Syria.

  • Arabs now have Syria and Egypt (Those Monophysite heretics!)
  • Yarmuk River (636)

-Byzantines completely f’d into a corner.

-After battle, cannot stop Arab advancement.

Constans II (641-668)

A) Reorganize Roman military.

  • Themas (A province)

B) *The Themata* Byzantium, 7th c. Constans II

  • Military unit stationed in a themas or province.

Why this is important: Each unit responsible for themas and owned property. Turns military into land holders. Instead of paying them, they got land.

  • Coinage disappears. Wide spread commerce declines.
  • Massive Urban Decline in Byzantium.
  • Makes soldiers very reliable. Fighting for their land, not yours. Defending Empire makes it strong enough to survive another thousand years.

Urban Decline

  • Cities belong to the Arabs. Whoops.
  • Themata
  • Exception: CONSTANTINOPLE!

Recreating Rome? Justinian’s Wars 6th c. AD

Eh, who cares. We still have Constantinople for another thousand years.

Eh, who cares. We still have Constantinople for another thousand years.

 

Emperor of Constantinople

  • Re-assert authority over lost territory. BELISARIUS = Greatest. General. Ever.

 

The Vandal Wars (533)

  • Believe Jesus has less authority than God. Arian! (Heretic)
  • Vandal conquest of Africa (429-442)

-Quick conquest of Vandal, HUGE influx of ka-ching!

-If we can retake Africa…then what else?

The Gothic Wars (535-553)

  • Theodoric as King in Italy (489-493)
  • War drags on for 20+ years.
  • Romans sack, pillage, loot.
  • Barbarians sack, pillage, loot.

-LOL this sends Italy to the stone age! Dark Ages for the win!

The Persian Wars (537-532; 540-545, and 549-561 or “Why won’t these guys stay dead?”)

  • Sassanian Persia (c. 224-641)

-Cataphract. Fucker horse units for Persia! Also star in Civilization games.

  • May have payed off the Persians to get them to go away….a few times.
  • Client Kingdoms

-Iberia, as buffer state. If they get invaded immobilize! Lazica too.

-Persian wars continue until 641 AD happens and Persia goes bye.

Justinian: Model Roman Emperor

  1. Fought Wars
  2. Corpus Iuris Civilis (Made Laws)
  3. Get involved with Religion. And all of its disputes.
  4. Last to govern in Latin. After him it is all Greek.

 

 

 

 

 

Rome in Transition

History Notes!

Emperor NOT Keanu Reeves

Emperor NOT Keanu Reeves

New Rome: Constantinople 324AD

  • Founded as Roman Capital in the East by Constantine.
  • Viable defendable capital.
  • Walls 30 feet above and under ground.
  • Best part of the Empire fo’sho!
  • Everything of old Rome, Constantinople emulates too!
  • (Grain Dole- Free food for Urban poor)

 

Barbarian Vs. Roman (Because we all saw this coming)

  • Generals- Barbarian. Barbarians have the army (Because that’s what happens when they are your soldiers), use puppets.
  • Stilicho (c. 359-408) vs. Aetius (c. 396-454)
  • Stilicho tells Honorius what to do.
  • So we don’t need Roman Emperor…
  • Stilicho’s father is barbarian, mother is Roman.
  • False Idea- Barbs taking over. Wanted citizenship.
  • 455- Vandals sacked Rome. “Vandalism”.
  • Bishop= Elite ministrator. Bishop would negotiate with Huns and Vandals.

 

Christianities

  • Settle an issue, another issue comes up!
  • Ecumenical Council, all Bishops of world get together and argue until they can agree. Establishes correct belief.
  • But can be overturned by later Councils so a lot of good that did…
  • If Jesus is equal to god, is he human? Christiological; about Christ’s Nature.
  • Nestorius, doesn’t like calling Mary “Mother of God”.
  • One Nature believers; Monophysites
  • Two Nature believers; Duophysites
  • God dammit…COUNCIL CALLED!

*Council of Chalcedon*

An Ecumenical council summoned to determine Christ’s nature. One or two? 5th century, Late Roman Empire. 451AD.

WHY it is important:

  • We believe Jesus has two natures.
  • Monophysites DO NOT ACCEPT THIS CRAZY TALK. (Egypt and Syria; Eastern)
  • EAST VS WEST. Soon to be Catholics vs Orthodox!
  • Patriarchies. City where Bishop is given higher authority than others.
  • Rome (WEST)
  • Constantinople (EAST)
  • Jerusalem (EAST)
  • Antioch (EAST)
  • Alexandria (EAST)
  • …See what is happening here?

 

The Henoticon (482)

  • Crap! Can’t piss off Egypt, they feed us. = Statement of Faith to make Monophysites happy without overturning council decision.
  • Acacius (Constantinople Bishop) gives this statement to Patriarchs. Rome Bishop gives resounding GTFO in the form of EXCOMMUNICATION.
  • Acacian Schism. 483.
  • LOL shunned. West and East.

History Notes! Society and Culture of Rome (3rd-4th Century)

"Don't worry, friends! The lion has come to join us in prayer!"

“Don’t worry, friends! The lion has come to join us in prayer!”

 

Elite Men: Triumph of Otium (Leisure, remember?)

  • Senate has no status, cities suck. Elite Men run to the countryside and neglect responsibilities.
  • Someone else must pick up the burden….*Cough* Middle Class *Cough* Sound familiar?

 

Elite Women: Triumph of Christianity

  • Earlier, had role of Wife and Mother.
  • Christianity now gives the role of “Virgin”.

-Higher calling than Wife or Mother.

-Celibacy elevated to a new ideal.

  • They could act like men! Manly virgins!
  • Patronize shrines of martyrs. (Cult of the Leader. Christians wouldn’t participate so Diocletion starts offing them during The Great Persecution)
  • Martyrs get survivor remorse. They essentially become heroes of Christianity, like super Christians.
  • Build shrines around the tomb!

Curicale Class and the Urban Plight

A) Curiale Class, lowest class of the Elite. Barely made the cut-off! (Middle Class)

  • Stuck with the bill. Cannot afford it, obviously. Cannot join the army either. Lulz ensue.
  • Also can’t become priests. CAN’T LEAVE THE CITY.

B) Bishop (Leader of church community)

  • Makes sure to take care of his people.
  • Good administrators, not good Christians…
  • Move into position of maintaining cities.

AD 312- Christianity Becomes Legal.

A) Multiple Christian groups competing with each other over correct belief.

B) Constantine: “All Christians believe same thing!! NOW!” because that’s realistic given these problems:

  • Issue of Forgiveness: If you survive persecution, are you still Christian?

-NO! Sin, against teachings. DENOUNCE DENOUNCE!

-OF COURSE, God forgivessss.

  • Relationship of the Trinity: (God the father, God the Son, Holy Spirit) What is the status?

-Father, OBVIOUSLY!

-They were equal, The Word was ‘Jesus’.

C) So. Correct belief?

  • ALWAYS determined through argument and compromise.
  • If not….then HERETIC!

D) *Theodosian Decrees* (391-392)

  • All people living in Roman Empire are now Christian! (Paganism outlawed)
  • WHY Is this important: For most of history, Rome was an incorporator. Major reversal of this practice! Didn’t want to offend, kept everyone happy, now though…safety comes from making sure everyone believes in one single idea to create uniformity! (Encourage stability and stop the fireeesssss)

 

History Notes! Restoring Order in Rome

The beginning of a beautiful relationship between Barbarians and Rome...

The beginning of a beautiful relationship between Barbarians and Rome…

 

The Dominate =”Late Empire”

a) 284AD- Diocletian “Dominus” =Lord and Master (Make status sacred because that’s never been done before ever…)

  • Problems:

-Size

-Army (In the business of “Emperor Making”. Also not big enough to do the job. That’s what she said.)

-Economy and Urban Decline (INFLATION! Moved out of cities due to epidemics and high inflation)

  • Solutions:

-Augusti and Caesars. Appoints co-ruler. Establishes the Tetrarchy. (Rule by 4.)

-2 Senior Emperors (East and West)

-Emperor didn’t live in Rome

-Also a “Caesar” or junior partner in East and West.

-Was trying to stabilize by putting Emperor in trouble spots

-Augustus would step down after 20 years and the Caesar would be promoted.

  • Soooooo did it work?

-Call Failblog.

b) 284-5th century. Emperor in East and West.

c) Constantine!

  • Comitatus and Mercenaries

-Cavalry Unit! Instead of foot soldiers, make forts and send our cavalry when there is trouble!

-Hire Mercenaries! Why not have barbarians fighting barbarians? Doesn’t this sound like the most spectacular idea ever? /sarcasm.

-Army becomes barbarian! Whoohoo! Offer status and citizenship to join! That’ll keep the barbarians out of Rome! …er…wait.

  • Tax Reformation

-Caput (head); That’s right! A Head tax! Pay it in coin, beetches.

-Iugum (Land tax); taxed by how much your land could produce. A “Tax in kind”

-These were all designed to pay the army…the barbarian army. Will contribute to decline of cities, without Army consumers–demand falls; economy falls.

 

 

History Notes! Society and Culture During the Principate

(Short and sweet history TL;DR! Previous–>The Principate)

"Why don't you go read a book, WOMAN."

“Why don’t you go read a book, WOMAN.”

 

 A) Elite  Men: “Paideia” (Greek word for education); Read Greek works.

  • Greek Rhetoric, the art of crafting an argument. Hey-o, Aristotle!

-Elite men took up the role of Patron of someone who was of lesser status.

-They would help them out, obligated, argue on behalf of.

  • Negotium (work)-  Job of being a Patron. Expected of all Elite Men, all men should be useful.
  • Otium (Leisure; Not at work;)- Life of leisure, doing what you want.

-LOL Vomitorium? Nah, that’s just an amphitheatre passage, bro.

 

B) Elite Women: Educated, almost as well as a man.

  • Never citizens, never adults. (Britany Spears song insert) Legal minor. Cannot make legal decisions on their own.

-Always needed a legal guardian. (Typically husband or father)

-When they could CHOOSE their guardian, however, NEVER the husband or father. Someone with less authority, obviously.

  • “Fiction” of not being in charge but, ladies were sooooo in control of their guardians. The neck moves the head, afterall.
  • Uncommon not to be married.

-Had responsibility to discuss politics with their husband. Give advice.

-Manipulate the system like we doooo, naturally.

 

C) Lower Class: Clients

  • Soldiers. People would cut off their toes to avoid this.
  • Merchants. Oh how the tides have turned.
  • Freedmen (Former Slaves): Always at bottom of social status because reasons.

 

D) Culture:

  • Literature: Virgil, anything before Octavian. Homer, Greek philosophy.
  • Art: Fresco (Wall paintings), Hellenistic style (anatomically correct)
  • Science: High understanding. Incredible architecture. Indoor plumbing. (Take that, Middle Ages)
  • Medicine: Galen (Physician in gladiatorial arena). Dissection, stitching. Generally decent understanding of the human body and the foundation of medical knowledge but then there was…

-Humoral Theory; Four Fluids: Blood (Heat), Phlgem (Cold), Green Bile, Black Bile

  • Geocentric: Ptolemy.
  • Philosophy and Religion: Stoicism.
  • Mystery Religions: Because why the hell not? Concerned with Salvation. Agape= “Unconditional Love”.